DIY Solar Battery For Home Implementation – Today, alternative energy sources have indisputable advantages, since they are both a profitable and rational solution: they allow you to save the environment and increase the level of profitability of the use of energy resources.
The best option for the “extraction” of clean energy is the use of solar panels. Photovoltaic cells can be used to create portable devices and stationary solar power plants for a private cottage.
However, this method has both supporters and ardent opponents.
While some are coming up with their own designs for solar systems, others believe that obtaining energy resources from alternative sources is a troublesome process that requires investment.
Let’s look at all the pros and cons to understand if the use of solar panels in everyday life is reasonable.
How does it work in practice?
Integration of the home’s energy system with alternative power sources is especially important for residents of areas where there are regular power outages. Solar modules are a simple design that consists of semiconductor and photovoltaic cells.
The device converts infrared radiation and visible light from the sun into useful electrical energy for which you do not have to pay.
This technology is widespread, but the high cost of a set of equipment, which includes solar panels, charge controllers, inverters and storage devices, makes it inaccessible to ordinary people. For this reason, the production of solar panels with their own hands is gaining popularity.
A self-made solar battery can store up to 140 watts of energy from each square meter of solar cells. A positive point in the independent manufacture of home solar systems is the ability to gradually increase the capacity of the installation by purchasing new solar cells.
When assembling such structures, do not make them cumbersome and difficult to mount. If your goal is to get a solar power plant with a capacity of 5–7 kW, then it is wiser to buy factory designs.
Yes, it is expensive, but it is reliable and there is a guarantee.
When designing autonomous power supply systems from solar panels, some craftsmen use a circuit with a generator.
First, the energy of the sun is converted into mechanical energy, which starts the rotation of the shaft, and then it is transformed into an electric current.
However, to implement this method in practice, you will need a decent start-up capital. In this scheme, volumetric photo panels are used, which must be constantly rotated after the sun. For home use – not the best option, but experimenters may well try.
Pros and cons of solar plants
Solar power supply systems are a practical way to obtain alternative energy, while the financial costs of equipment and materials are paid off after 1–2 years of operation, and in the future you will be able to save on the purchase of traditional energy resources. Good perspective for the future.
The benefits of homemade solar ecosystems:
- when used correctly, the service life is 25–30 years;
- lightweight materials are used to create photovoltaic plates, which is considered an important advantage for houses whose foundation is not designed for heavy loads;
- to design a solar panel at home, you do not need special knowledge and skills;
- photovoltaic panels rarely fail, most often due to mechanical damage, but defective elements are easy to replace;
- solar systems do not pose a threat to the environment and operate silently, unlike wind turbines.
Along with the obvious advantages, a homemade solar panel also has some disadvantages. First, you will have to regularly clean the surface of the battery from dirt, which reduces the sensitivity and light transmission of the photocells.
Secondly, installation of equipment will require a lot of free space, but the main thing is that solar systems are dependent on weather conditions and time of day. Stable solar energy generation is possible only during the day and in good weather.
In other situations, the power indicators are reduced by 7-10 times, and the efficiency drops to 8-10%. Be sure to consider these nuances.
Making solar panels is not difficult. But it is important not only to correctly design the device, but also to correctly install it. Compliance with the rules of production and installation will allow you to get the maximum benefit from this design. There are 4 basic requirements for household ecosystems:
- the plates are fragile, so first it is better to prepare the frame, and then only mount the photocells;
- the side walls of the case should not create obstacles to the direct hit of the sun’s rays on the photovoltaic cells, therefore, their height should be minimal;
- the outer and inner surface of the case must be treated with a moisture-resistant paint for reliable protection against atmospheric influences;
- technological openings for ventilation must be provided in the lower part of the structure in order to remove the gas that forms when the panels are heated.
Main types of materials
It is allowed to use factory plates with photocells, which are sold in the online store and on the electronics market, or you can make the installation from scrap materials. By using regular foil for the substrate, you will improve the reflectivity of the photocells and eliminate the possibility of overheating the battery.
The use of foil-clad materials has a positive effect on the service life of the photo panels. To independently make a solar battery for your home, you can use old radio components for this – diodes or transistors.
For household solar systems, it is allowed to use special photodiodes or ordinary diodes without a metal case. Sunlight hitting the pn junction causes electrons to move, and an electric current is generated.
But take into account the fact that the voltage in the diodes is very small – to get a powerful battery for household needs, you will need to use a large number of electronic elements.
But is it reasonable?
In theory, on solar diode-type batteries, the voltage increases in proportion to the number of photodiodes used in the system, but in practice, a completely different picture is obtained.
With the addition of a large number of electronic elements, the area required for their placement also increases, which inevitably leads to power losses.
In this case, some photodiodes will always consume part of the generated current. It is not yet possible to eliminate this drawback. But the main problem is that electricity generation occurs only under the influence of direct sunlight. If the sky is overcast, then the output will be zero voltage.
This is one of the ways how to make a portable solar battery yourself. Why can’t you make a full-fledged solar system out of transistors? Everything is simple – due to the difference in the areas of transistors and semiconductors, the efficiency will be low, so this option is suitable only for experimental experiments and entertainment.
From the device, you can power an electronic clock, mobile phone or radio. To charge a smartphone, it is enough to use 4–8 KT801B transistors.
Selection of purchased photocells
To make a solar panel with your own hands, many recommend using ready-made photovoltaic plates. It is convenient but more expensive. There are three types of converters:
- Monocrystalline – efficiency is kept at the level of 10-15%, but solar cells are dependent on the amount of incident sunlight, the average service life is 20-25 years.
- Polycrystalline – efficiency 7-9%, but photovoltaic cells are able to generate electricity even in cloudy weather, the service life is 20 years.
- Amorphous – the efficiency is at the level of 10%, they work effectively in any weather, only the high price confuses.
For experimental installations it is not at all necessary to purchase factory converters and conveyor. For this, class “B” photovoltaic plates are quite suitable – second-rate elements with minor defects.
Even in the event of their failure and replacement, the prime cost of household heliosystems will be 2-3 times, thanks to which it will be possible to save a little.
DIY Solar Battery For Home Implementation: Summarizing
It is quite possible to provide a private house with cheap electricity, and for this you do not need to reinvent the wheel – there are many proven ways to make a solar battery yourself.
Yes, their efficiency is not the highest, but there are other advantages that more than cover this disadvantage.
It is only important to take into account the peculiarities of the climate of a particular area of residence. As practice shows, the efficiency of heliosystems is higher in the steppes, where good weather prevails, while in mountainous regions with a high level of precipitation, the intensity of light radiation is less.
Making solar panels at home makes it possible to optimize the consumption of electrical energy – you can create a completely autonomous system or combine traditional and alternative sources of electricity.
It all depends on the needs and the size of the budget.